January 1 - Jair Bolsonaro begins his four-year term as President of Brazil.
January 1 - Qatar withdraws from OPEC.
February 1 – U.S. President Donald Trump confirms that the U.S. will leave the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty of 1987, citing Russian non-compliance.
February 3 – Pope Francis arrives in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, becoming the first pope to visit the Arabian Peninsula.
February 12 – The Republic of Macedonia renames itself the Republic of North Macedonia, officially ending a decades-old dispute with Greece.
February 27–28 – The 2019 North Korea–United States summit is held in Hanoi, Vietnam.
March 19 - Nursultan Nazarbayev resigns as President of Kazakhstan after 29 years in office and appoints Kassym-Jomart Tokayev as acting president. Astana is renamed Nur-Sultan the following day in his honor.
March 19 - Karen Uhlenbeck is the first woman to win the Abel Prize for outstanding contributions to mathematics.
April 2 – Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigns as President of Algeria amid widespread protests, after nearly two decades in office.
April 10 – Scientists from the Event Horizon Telescope project announce the first ever image of a black hole, located in the centre of the M87 galaxy.
April 11 – WikiLeaks co-founder Julian Assange is arrested after seven years in Ecuador's embassy in London.
April 11 – Amid mass protests, Omar al-Bashir is deposed as President of Sudan in a coup d'état, after nearly 30 years in office.
April 18 – NepaliSat-1 is launched. It is Nepal's first ever research satellite to be sent into space.
May 24 – British Prime Minister Theresa May announces her resignation as Conservative leader, effective June 7, 2019.
May 30 – July 14 – The 2019 Cricket World Cup is held in England and Wales, and is won by England.
June 7 – July 7 – The 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup is held in France and is won by the United States.
July – The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reports, on August 15, that July 2019 was the hottest month on record globally, at 0.95 °C (1.71 °F) above the 20th-century average.
July 16 – The European Parliament elects Ursula von der Leyen as the new President of the European Commission. Succeeding Jean-Claude Juncker
July 24 – Boris Johnson becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after defeating Jeremy Hunt in a leadership contest, succeeding Theresa May.
July 26 – August 11 – The 2019 Pan American Games are held in Lima, Peru.
July 30 – India bans triple talaq.
August 5 – India revokes the part of its constitution that gives Indian-administered Kashmir special status in an unprecedented move.
September 5 – The Supreme Court of India decriminalizes homosexuality.
September 20 – November 2 – The 2019 Rugby Union World Cup is held in Japan; the South Africa Springboks defeat the England national rugby union team 32–12.
October 18 – NASA astronauts Jessica Meir and Christina Koch conduct the first all-female spacewalk outside of the International Space Station.
October 27 – U.S. President Donald Trump announces that the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, was killed in a U.S. special forces operation.
November 9 – The Supreme Court of India awards a holy site in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh to Hindus, rejecting a Muslim claim.
November 23 – The last known Sumatran rhinoceros in Malaysia dies.
November 27 – The U.S. Government passes the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act.
November 30 – December 11 – The 2019 Southeast Asian Games are held in the Philippines.
December 2–13 – The 2019 United Nations Climate Change Conference takes place in Madrid, Spain, after Chilean President Sebastián Piñera announced in October that his country could not host the conference due to political unrest in the country.
December 10 – Sanna Marin, at the age of 34, becomes the world's youngest serving prime minister after being selected to lead Finland's Social Democratic Party.